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PostgreSQL命令语法大全

时间:2020-06-23 来源:

PostgreSQL的命令怎么使用?可以使用help语句查看所有postgreSQL语句的语法。 按照以下步骤查看PostgreSQL中所有语句的语法。

安装postgreSQL后,打开psql为:程序文件 -> PostgreSQL 9.2 -> SQL Shell(psql)

使用以下语句查看特定语句的语法。 postgres-#\ help&


所有PostgreSQL语句

在这里,我们提供了所有postgreSQL语句及其语法的列表:

ABORT语句:

语法:

ABORT [ WORK | TRANSACTION ]

ALTER AGGREGATE语句:

语法:

ALTER AGGREGATE name ( type ) RENAME TO new_name

ALTER AGGREGATE name ( type ) OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER CONVERSION语句:

语法:

ALTER CONVERSION name RENAME TO new_name

ALTER CONVERSION name OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER DATABASE语句:

语法:

ALTER DATABASE name SET parameter { TO | = } { value | DEFAULT }

ALTER DATABASE name RESET parameter

ALTER DATABASE name RENAME TO new_name

ALTER DATABASE name OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER DOMAIN语句:

语法:

ALTER DOMAIN name { SET DEFAULT expression | DROP DEFAULT }

ALTER DOMAIN name { SET | DROP } NOT NULL

ALTER DOMAIN name ADD domain_constraint

ALTER DOMAIN name DROP CONSTRAINT constraint_name [ RESTRICT | CASCADE ]

ALTER DOMAIN name OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER FUNCTION语句:

语法:

ALTER FUNCTION name ( [ type [, ...] ] ) RENAME TO new_name

ALTER FUNCTION name ( [ type [, ...] ] ) OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER GROUP语句:

语法:

ALTER GROUP groupname ADD USER username [, ... ]

ALTER GROUP groupname DROP USER username [, ... ]

ALTER GROUP groupname RENAME TO new_name

ALTER INDEX语句:

语法:

ALTER INDEX name OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER INDEX name SET TABLESPACE indexspace_name

ALTER INDEX name RENAME TO new_name

ALTER LANGUAGE语句:

语法:

ALTER LANGUAGE name RENAME TO new_name

ALTER OPERATOR语句:

语法:

ALTER OPERATOR name ( { lefttype | NONE } , { righttype | NONE } )

OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER OPERATOR CLASS语句:

语法:

ALTER OPERATOR CLASS name USING index_method RENAME TO new_name

ALTER OPERATOR CLASS name USING index_method OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER SCHEMA语句:

语法:

ALTER SCHEMA name RENAME TO new_name

ALTER SCHEMA name OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER SEQUENCE语句:

语法:

ALTER SEQUENCE name [ INCREMENT [ BY ] increment ]

[ MINVALUE minvalue | NO MINVALUE ]

[ MAXVALUE maxvalue | NO MAXVALUE ]

[ RESTART [ WITH ] start ] [ CACHE cache ] [ [ NO ] CYCLE ]

ALTER TABLE语句:

语法:

ALTER TABLE [ ONLY ] name [ * ]

action [, ... ]

ALTER TABLE [ ONLY ] name [ * ]

RENAME [ COLUMN ] column TO new_column

ALTER TABLE name

RENAME TO new_name

ALTER TABLESPACE语句:

语法:

ALTER TABLESPACE name RENAME TO new_name

ALTER TABLESPACE name OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER TRIGGER语句:

语法:

ALTER TRIGGER name ON table RENAME TO new_name

ALTER TYPE语句:

语法:

ALTER TYPE name OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER USER语句:

语法:

ALTER USER name [ [ WITH ] option [ ... ] ]

ALTER USER name RENAME TO new_name

ALTER USER name SET parameter { TO | = } { value | DEFAULT }

ALTER USER name RESET parameter

ANALYSE语句:

语法:

ANALYZE [ VERBOSE ] [ table [ (column [, ...] ) ] ]

BEGIN语句:

语法:

BEGIN [ WORK | TRANSACTION ] [ transaction_mode [, ...] ]

CHECKPOINT语句:

语法:

CHECKPOINT

CLOSE语句:

语法:

CLOSE name

CLUSTER语句:

语法:

CLUSTER index_name ON table_name

CLUSTER table_name

CLUSTER

COMMIT语句:

语法:

COMMIT [ WORK | TRANSACTION ]

COPY语句:

语法:

COPY table_name [ ( column [, ...] ) ]

FROM { 'filename' | STDIN }

[ [ WITH ]

[ BINARY ]

[ OIDS ]

[ DELIMITER [ AS ] 'delimiter' ]

[ NULL [ AS ] 'null string' ]

[ CSV [ QUOTE [ AS ] 'quote' ]

[ ESCAPE [ AS ] 'escape' ]

[ FORCE NOT NULL column [, ...] ]

COPY table_name [ ( column [, ...] ) ]

TO { 'filename' | STDOUT }

[ [ WITH ]

[ BINARY ]

[ OIDS ]

[ DELIMITER [ AS ] 'delimiter' ]

[ NULL [ AS ] 'null string' ]

[ CSV [ QUOTE [ AS ] 'quote' ]

[ ESCAPE [ AS ] 'escape' ]

[ FORCE QUOTE column [, ...] ]

CREATE AGGREGATE语句:

语法:

CREATE AGGREGATE name (

BASETYPE = input_data_type,

SFUNC = sfunc,

STYPE = state_data_type

[ , FINALFUNC = ffunc ]

[ , INITCOND = initial_condition ]

)

CREATE CAST语句:

语法:

CREATE CAST (source_type AS target_type)

WITH FUNCTION func_name (arg_types)

[ AS ASSIGNMENT | AS IMPLICIT ]

CREATE CAST (source_type AS target_type)

WITHOUT FUNCTION

[ AS ASSIGNMENT | AS IMPLICIT ]

CREATE CONSTRAINT TRIGGER语句:

语法:

CREATE CONSTRAINT TRIGGER name

AFTER events ON

table_name constraint attributes

FOR EACH ROW EXECUTE PROCEDURE func_name ( args )

CREATE CONVERSION语句:

语法:

CREATE [DEFAULT] CONVERSION name

FOR source_encoding TO dest_encoding FROM func_name

CREATE DATABASE语句:

语法:

CREATE DATABASE name

[ [ WITH ] [ OWNER [=] db_owner ]

[ TEMPLATE [=] template ]

[ ENCODING [=] encoding ]

[ TABLESPACE [=] tablespace ] ]

CREATE DOMAIN语句:

语法:

CREATE DOMAIN name [AS] data_type

[ DEFAULT expression ]

[ constraint [ ... ] ]

CREATE FUNCTION语句:

语法:

CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] FUNCTION name ( [ [ arg_name ] arg_type [, ...] ] )

RETURNS ret_type

{ LANGUAGE lang_name

| IMMUTABLE | STABLE | VOLATILE

| CALLED ON NULL INPUT | RETURNS NULL ON NULL INPUT | STRICT

| [ EXTERNAL ] SECURITY INVOKER | [ EXTERNAL ] SECURITY DEFINER

| AS 'definition'

| AS 'obj_file', 'link_symbol'

} ...

[ WITH ( attribute [, ...] ) ]

CREATE GROUP语句:

语法:

CREATE GROUP name [ [ WITH ] option [ ... ] ]

Where option can be:

SYSID gid

| USER username [, ...]

CREATE INDEX语句:

语法:

CREATE [ UNIQUE ] INDEX name ON table [ USING method ]

( { column | ( expression ) } [ opclass ] [, ...] )

[ TABLESPACE tablespace ]

[ WHERE predicate ]

CREATE LANGUAGE语句:

语法:

CREATE [ TRUSTED ] [ PROCEDURAL ] LANGUAGE name

HANDLER call_handler [ VALIDATOR val_function ]

CREATE OPERATOR语句:

语法:

CREATE OPERATOR name (

PROCEDURE = func_name

[, LEFTARG = left_type ] [, RIGHTARG = right_type ]

[, COMMUTATOR = com_op ] [, NEGATOR = neg_op ]

[, RESTRICT = res_proc ] [, JOIN = join_proc ]

[, HASHES ] [, MERGES ]

[, SORT1 = left_sort_op ] [, SORT2 = right_sort_op ]

[, LTCMP = less_than_op ] [, GTCMP = greater_than_op ]

)

CREATE OPERATOR CLASS语句:

语法:

CREATE OPERATOR CLASS name [ DEFAULT ] FOR TYPE data_type

USING index_method AS

{ OPERATOR strategy_number operator_name [ ( op_type, op_type ) ] [ RECHECK ]

| FUNCTION support_number func_name ( argument_type [, ...] )

| STORAGE storage_type

} [, ... ]

CREATE RULE语句:

语法:

CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] RULE name AS ON event

TO table [ WHERE condition ]

DO [ ALSO | INSTEAD ] { NOTHING | command | ( command ; command ... ) }

CREATE SCHEMA语句:

语法:

CREATE SCHEMA schema_name

[ AUTHORIZATION username ] [ schema_element [ ... ] ]

CREATE SCHEMA AUTHORIZATION username

[ schema_element [ ... ] ]

CREATE SEQUENCE语句:

语法:

CREATE [ TEMPORARY | TEMP ] SEQUENCE name

[ INCREMENT [ BY ] increment ]

[ MINVALUE minvalue | NO MINVALUE ]

[ MAXVALUE maxvalue | NO MAXVALUE ]

[ START [ WITH ] start ] [ CACHE cache ] [ [ NO ] CYCLE ]

CREATE TABLE语句:

语法:

CREATE [ [ GLOBAL | LOCAL ] { TEMPORARY | TEMP } ] TABLE table_name (

{ column_name data_type [ DEFAULT default_expr ] [ column_constraint [ ... ] ]

| table_constraint

| LIKE parent_table [ { INCLUDING | EXCLUDING } DEFAULTS ] } [, ... ]

)

[ INHERITS ( parent_table [, ... ] ) ]

[ WITH OIDS | WITHOUT OIDS ]

[ ON COMMIT { PRESERVE ROWS | DELETE ROWS | DROP } ]

[ TABLESPACE tablespace ]

CREATE TABLE AS语句:

语法:

CREATE [ [ GLOBAL | LOCAL ] { TEMPORARY | TEMP } ] TABLE table_name

[ (column_name [, ...] ) ] [ [ WITH | WITHOUT ] OIDS ]

AS query

CREATE TABLESPACE语句:

语法:

CREATE TABLESPACE tablespace_name [ OWNER username ] LOCATION 'directory'

CRFEATE TRIGGER语句:

语法:

CREATE TRIGGER name { BEFORE | AFTER } { event [ OR ... ] }

ON table [ FOR [ EACH ] { ROW | STATEMENT } ]

EXECUTE PROCEDURE func_name ( arguments )

CREATE TYPE语句:

语法:

CREATE TYPE name AS

( attribute_name data_type [, ... ] )

CREATE TYPE name (

INPUT = input_function,

OUTPUT = output_function

[ , RECEIVE = receive_function ]

[ , SEND = send_function ]

[ , ANALYZE = analyze_function ]

[ , INTERNALLENGTH = { internal_length | VARIABLE } ]

[ , PASSEDBYVALUE ]

[ , ALIGNMENT = alignment ]

[ , STORAGE = storage ]

[ , DEFAULT = default ]

[ , ELEMENT = element ]

[ , DELIMITER = delimiter ]

)

CREATE USER语句:

语法:

CREATE USER name [ [ WITH ] option [ ... ] ]

CREATE VIEW语句:

语法:

CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] VIEW name [ ( column_name [, ...] ) ] AS query

DEALLOCATE语句:

语法:

DEALLOCATE [ PREPARE ] plan_name

DECLARE语句:

语法:

DECLARE name [ BINARY ] [ INSENSITIVE ] [ [ NO ] SCROLL ]

CURSOR [ { WITH | WITHOUT } HOLD ] FOR query

[ FOR { READ ONLY | UPDATE [ OF column [, ...] ] } ]

DELETE语句:

语法:

DELETE FROM [ ONLY ] table [ WHERE condition ]

DROP AGGREGATE语句:

语法:

DROP AGGREGATE name ( type ) [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP CAST语句:

语法:

DROP CAST (source_type AS target_type) [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP CONVERSION语句:

语法:

DROP CONVERSION name [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP DATABASE语句:

语法:

DROP DATABASE name

DROP DOMAIN语句:

语法:

DROP DOMAIN name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP FUNCTION语句:

语法:

DROP FUNCTION name ( [ type [, ...] ] ) [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP GROUP语句:

语法:

DROP GROUP name

DROP INDEX语句:

语法:

DROP INDEX name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP LANGUAGE语句:

语法:

DROP [ PROCEDURAL ] LANGUAGE name [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP OPERATOR语句:

语法:

DROP OPERATOR name ( { left_type | NONE } , { right_type | NONE } )

[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP OPERATOR CLASS语句:

语法:

DROP OPERATOR CLASS name USING index_method [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP RULE语句:

语法:

DROP RULE name ON relation [CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP SCHEMA语句:

语法:

DROP SCHEMA name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP SEQUENCE语句:

语法:

DROP SEQUENCE name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP TABLE语句:

语法:

DROP TABLE name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP TABLESPACE语句:

语法:

DROP TABLESPACE tablespace_name

DROP TRIGGER语句:

语法:

DROP TRIGGER name ON table [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP TYPE语句:

语法:

DROP TYPE name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP USER语句:

语法:

DROP USER name

DROP VIEW语句:

语法:

DROP VIEW name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

END语句:

语法:

END [ WORK | TRANSACTION ]

EXECUTE语句:

语法:

EXECUTE plan_name [ (parameter [, ...] ) ]

EXPLAIN语句:

语法:

EXPLAIN [ ANALYZE ] [ VERBOSE ] statement

FETCH语句:

语法:

FETCH [ direction { FROM | IN } ] cursor_name

INSERT语句:

语法:

INSERT INTO table [ ( column [, ...] ) ]

{ DEFAULT VALUES | VALUES ( { expression | DEFAULT } [, ...] ) | query }

LISTEN语句:

语法:

LISTEN name

LOAD语句:

语法:

LOAD 'filename'

LOCK语句:

语法:

LOCK [ TABLE ] name [, ...] [ IN lock_mode MODE ] [ NOWAIT ]

MOVE语句:

语法:

MOVE [ direction { FROM | IN } ] cursor_name

NOTIFY语句:

语法:

NOTIFY name

PREPARE语句:

语法:

PREPARE plan_name [ (data_type [, ...] ) ] AS statement

REINDEX语句:

语法:

REINDEX { DATABASE | TABLE | INDEX } name [ FORCE ]

RESET语句:

语法:

RESET name

RESET ALL

ROLLBACK语句:

语法:

ROLLBACK [ WORK | TRANSACTION ]

ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT语句:

语法:

ROLLBACK [ WORK | TRANSACTION ] TO [ SAVEPOINT ] savepoint_name

SAVEPOINT语句:

语法:

SAVEPOINT savepoint_name

SELECT语句:

语法:

SELECT [ ALL | DISTINCT [ ON ( expression [, ...] ) ] ]

* | expression [ AS output_name ] [, ...]

[ FROM from_item [, ...] ]

[ WHERE condition ]

[ GROUP BY expression [, ...] ]

[ HAVING condition [, ...] ]

[ { UNION | INTERSECT | EXCEPT } [ ALL ] select ]

[ ORDER BY expression [ ASC | DESC | USING operator ] [, ...] ]

[ LIMIT { count | ALL } ]

[ OFFSET start ]

[ FOR UPDATE [ OF table_name [, ...] ] ]

SELECT INTO语句:

语法:

SELECT [ ALL | DISTINCT [ ON ( expression [, ...] ) ] ]

* | expression [ AS output_name ] [, ...]

INTO [ TEMPORARY | TEMP ] [ TABLE ] new_table

[ FROM from_item [, ...] ]

[ WHERE condition ]

[ GROUP BY expression [, ...] ]

[ HAVING condition [, ...] ]

[ { UNION | INTERSECT | EXCEPT } [ ALL ] select ]

[ ORDER BY expression [ ASC | DESC | USING operator ] [, ...] ]

[ LIMIT { count | ALL } ]

[ OFFSET start ]

[ FOR UPDATE [ OF table_name [, ...] ] ]

SET语句:

语法:

SET [ SESSION | LOCAL ] name { TO | = } { value | 'value' | DEFAULT }

SET [ SESSION | LOCAL ] TIME ZONE { time_zone | LOCAL | DEFAULT }

SET CONSTRAINTS语句:

语法:

SET CONSTRAINTS { ALL | name [, ...] } { DEFERRED | IMMEDIATE }

SET TRANSACTION语句:

语法:

SET TRANSACTION transaction_mode [, ...]

SET SESSION CHARACTERISTICS AS TRANSACTION transaction_mode [, ...]

SHOW语句:

语法:

SHOW name

SHOW ALL

START TRANSACTION语句:

语法:

START TRANSACTION [ transaction_mode [, ...] ]

TRUNCATE TABLE语句:

语法:

TRUNCATE [ TABLE ] name

UPDATE语句:

语法:

UPDATE [ ONLY ] table SET column = { expression | DEFAULT } [, ...]

[ FROM from_list ]

[ WHERE condition ]

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